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2km Long Range FM Transmitter
Posted on Tuesday, December 4, 2012   •   Category: FM Transmitters

The power output of many transmitter circuits are very low because no power amplifier stages are incorporated. The transmitter circuit described here has an extra RF power amplifier stage using 2N3866 RF power transistor after the oscillator stage to increase output power to 250 milliwatts. With a good matching 50-ohm ground plane antenna or multi-element Yagi antenna, this transmitter can provide reasonably good signal strength up to a distance of about 2 kilometers. Transmitter's oscillator is built around BF494 transistor T1. It is a basic low-power variable-frequency VHF oscillator. A varicap diode circuit is included to tune the frequency of the transmitter and to provide frequency modulation by audio signals. The output of the oscillator is about 50 milliwatts. 2N3866 transistor T2 forms a VHF-class A power amplifier. It boosts the oscillator signal power four to five times. Thus 250mW of power is generated at the collector of transistor T2.

30V Volt Meter with PIC16F676
Posted on Friday, November 30, 2012   •   Category: Test and Measurement

This is a simple 30V volt meter using PIC16F676 micro controller with 10-bit ADC (analog to digital converter) and three 7 segment LED displays. You can use this circuit to measure up to 30V DC. The possible applications are on bench power supply or as a digital panel meter in various systems. PIC16F676 is the heart and brain of this circuit. The internal adc of the mcu with a resistor network voltage divider is used to measure the input voltage. Then 3 digits of comm anode 7 segment display is used to display final converted voltage. As you can see in the schematic the displays are multiplexed with each other. It means we switch on one display and put the corresponding digit on this while other two displays are off this cycle goes for each of the displays.

Micro Transmitter Bug
Posted on Sunday, November 18, 2012   •   Category: FM Transmitters

Presented FM transmitter bug is built using BF414 / BF324 / BF606 transistor. The 30cm antenna has a range of about 30m in the building, more in the open field. Power supply 2x AAA batteries have been used with voltage of 2.75 V. I added resistor 10K in parallel with 1.5pF capacitor so that the system works well when connected to an external source (mp3 player / computer). On the computer I had to reduce sound to about 35% of capacity, so that I do not have clipping. I managed to improve transmitter stability with simple shielding. The coil is 5 turns of enameled copper wire wound on 1 mm = 5 mm.

How Do Lead Acid Batteries Work
Posted on Wednesday, November 7, 2012   •   Category: Battery Chargers

Lead Acid batteries have changed little since the 1880's although improvements in materials and manufacturing methods continue to bring improvements in energy density, life and reliability. All lead acid batteries consist of flat lead plates immersed in a pool of electrolyte. Regular water addition is required for most types of lead acid batteries although low-maintenance types come with excess electrolyte calculated to compensate for water loss during a normal lifetime. Lead acid batteries used in the RV and Marine Industries usually consist of two 6-volt batteries in series, or a single 12-volt battery. These batteries are constructed of several single cells connected in series each cell produces approximately 2.1 volts. A six-volt battery has three single cells, which when fully charged produce an output voltage of 6.3 volts. A twelve-volt battery has six single cells in series producing a fully charged output voltage of 12.6 volts.

BA1404 Transmitter with UPC1651RF Amplifier
Posted on Friday, October 26, 2012   •   Category: FM Transmitters

BA1404 transmitter includes onboard RF amplifier for increased transmitting range. Operating voltage range is 1-3V, the circuit contains FM stereo mixer, 38KHZ oscillator, FM modulator and high-frequency amplifier monolithic integrated circuit. As the "electronic newspaper" BBS there are many users requiring detailed information on the FM stereo transmitter, so I re-collect the relevant information on the simple discrete, merge, integrated FM stereo transmitter experiment, that BA1404 with μpc1651 mix of the most easy to make and debug, and very high frequency stability (relative to the previous circuit BA1404), transmission power is increased by UPC1651RF amplifier.

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